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Investors Guide | Stock Exchange And Related Information

What is Stock Exchange?, How to see news of stock exchange, Types of companies in stock exchange, De materialization of shares, Future and Options, SEBI, Understand the Index, Astrologer for minute analysis of horoscope.
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For investors it is very important to know the Stock Exchange or stock market. Because directly or indirectly he is attached with the Stock Exchange. 

Stock Exchange is a market where selling of shares and securities takes place therefore it is also called stock market too. Here investors come to buy or sell the security which contains shares, debentures, Bonds of Govt. and Non Govt.

In India there are 2 important Stock Exchange (A) Bombay (Mumbai) Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange (NSE). 

Working Way of Stock Exchange:

Like as other Markets it is not possible to buy or sell shares directly in Stock Exchange. As per the rules and regulation of Stock Exchange you have to make the transaction through the authorized brokers of Stock Exchange. These Brokers are called Stock Broker or Share Broker. They have the License of member of stock exchange. They get commission or brokerage. Brokerage is given on the stock exchange website or in the brokers’ websites too. 

Only Listed companies shares can be buy and sell through Indian Stock Exchange.

Daily News of Stock Exchange:

The news of share market publish daily on different National News papers which contains the following information-

1. Name of Company.

2. NSE and BSE code of companies.

3. Values of shares in NSE and BSE.

4. Last day closing value of shares.

5. Opening value of shares of last day.

6. Number of deals in stock.

7. Total value of Deals.

8. Numbers of shares buy and sold.

9. P/E Ratio i.e. price/earning ratio.

10. Maximum and Lowest value of shares in last 52 weeks.

Some Names of News Papers which publish Share Market News are – 

1. Economic Times

2. Business Standard

3. Financial Express

4. Financial chronicle

5. Mint

6. The Hindu Business Line

7. Business Bhaskar

8. Business Standard etc.

Multinational Companies (MNCs):

MNCs are those companies of which more than 40% equity capital is of foreigners i.e. non Indians. The shares of these companies are very good for investment. 

Blue-Chip Companies:

In the categories of Blue Chip we can keep all those companies who are good for investment. Investors can decide whether to keep the company in Blue-chip category or not.

Bull and Bear (Upward and Downward Market Trend):

Optimistic investors think that prices will hike and therefore they start buying the shares and therefore prices of shares start rising and the market is called ‘Bull market’.

Just opposite of this Some investors who have pessimistic thought start selling their shares and thus prices of shares start falling and the market is called ‘Bear Market’.

Buy Back of Shares:

Some times companies announce buy back offer which means company buy its own shares.

By this company equity capital become decrease. This increases the earning per share. By this in Market, Company P/E gets increase and prices of shares hike. Some times in buy back offers investors get huge profit.

Stock Split:

Stock Split means company converts the present shares and divided it into low value shares. This doesn’t affect the equity capital. This gives profit to investors because shares become cheap. Investors take interest in company shares and prices starts hiking. 

De-materialization of Shares:

In this process shares are converted into electronic forms. This change is made by ‘Depository’. 

There are 2 Depository in India-

1. Central Securities Depository Limited (CSDL)- Depository of BSE.

2. National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL)- Depository of NSE.

Depository work just like banks. In banks transaction of money takes place but in depository transaction of  shares takes place. 

The agent who give depository services are called Depository Participant(DP).

How to Dematerialize Shares?

Its very easy just open an De-mat account with the help of any DP and give your share certificates with a De mat request Form. Every thing will be done by DP. Generally this process takes about 1 Month.

Benefits of De-materialization:

1. Dematerialized Shares are real. There is no doubt on their authenticity. 

2. Transfer of dematerialized shares is very easy. 

3. Enrollment of shares is possible.

4. Change of address is very easy. 

5. Bonus shares and other types of shares get deposited in account easily.

Re materialization of Shares:

This means to convert the electronic forms of shares into share certificates. For this only a request has to give to the DP.

Future and Options (F and O):

This was started from the year 2001. Experienced investors and gamblers use this system. Let’s understand this system.

Future-

In future market only you have to pay for the loss or profit you made on a particular day. The deal done by depositing the margin money at the time of booking.  It is good to use ‘Stop Loss Facility’ if you want to play the game of Future. 

Options:

Option is also a type of Future Business. When you buy option then you have the power to sell or buy it to have profit or minimize the loss. 

Option is of 2 Types-

1. Call Options

2. Put Options

Call options are bought by them who expect upward market and put options is is bought by them who expect downward in market. 

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI):

SEBI was form in 1992, in which there are 6 members and 1 chairman. SEBI protect the rights of investors. SEBI control every stock exchanges and its working. It also arranges the training of share brokers etc. 

Index of Share Market:

Share market index shows the value of shares. It is updated regularly in every second. 

Index is generally average of those shares that represent the whole share market. 

Their liquidity are more than other shares, their capitalization is also more, Their trading is more than other companies shares. 

BSE Sensitive index is called Sen-sex. 

Another important index is Nifty. This is the index of National Stock Exchange. In this 50 shares of different fields are included. List of shares are given in website of NSE and BSE.


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Read Related Articles on:
What is Stock Exchange?, How to see news of stock exchange, Types of companies in stock exchange, De materialization of shares, Future and Options, SEBI, Understand the Index, Astrologer for minute analysis of horoscope.

1 comment:

  1. Hello sir,
    Fantastic article....very informative and helpful for beginners
    Thank you for sharing this.

    ReplyDelete